Dot

 I think that I have invented this! I wanted to create a solid dot using 4 pairs of threads. If you try to do a diamond this small, it looks very insignificant. And tallies can be tricky! I noticed that triangular ground looked quite solid, but it is only half a dot. So this is an extension of the idea. Rather to my surprise, the dot has a little gap in the centre. One unit of dot ground needs four pairs on bobbins, two on each side. If you repeat this, then it is a ground (see pattern 231).
 However, you can have just one, and then it looks more like a miniature spider (see pattern 146).

Pattern representation of dot ground

Since I have invented this, there is no traditional pattern. I prefer to mark out exactly where the pairs go - see above right. You may feel that makes it more confusing! But in fact, once you've grasped how dot ground works, it is a help to have a clue on the pattern which pair should go where.

The diagram below shows one unit of dot ground. It shows each thread as a line, with the different pairs different colours. There are two types of stitches in dot ground, cloth stitch and twist pair. The details of each stitch are not shown in detail below - follow the links in the previous sentence if you are not familiar with them.

Working: You start with 4 pairs, 2 on one side and 2 on the other. Make sure that all pairs are twisted before you start.

All the following stitches are in cloth stitch. Work the middle two pairs, and pin between them. Work the left two pairs and the right two pairs, then the middle two pairs again. Work the left two pairs and the right two pairs. Put the pins between the edge pairs and the others. Work the left two pairs and the right two pairs. Then work the middle pair again. Now work the left two pairs and the right two pairs. Put in the bottom pin (half the pairs will be to its left and half to its right). Work the middle two pairs after the pin.